HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache, private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Thu, 26 Nov 2020 12:04:00 GMT 亚洲高清av无码影片

[X] CLOSEMAIN MENU

[X] CLOSEIN THIS SECTION

Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

节目19 歌曲《一辈子朋友》,杨坤 张靓颖

Show MoreHide

他说,杂志和作者在这起最近发生的丑闻中都有不可推卸的责任,声明中还说,《肿瘤生物学》在2015年就已经因同行评议过程存在类似问题而撤销一些论文。
She’s No. 1: Chancellor Merkel has made the list eight times out of the past ten years — seven times as No. 1.
The Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded to a scientist who managed to build the world’s tiniest machines out of molecules.

两周后,伯恩海默等几十位著名的早期绘画大师作品交易商出席伦敦的夜间拍卖会。过去,他们通常会在这些拍卖会上购买一些作品,以备在第二年3月的荷兰马斯特里赫特欧洲美术博览会(Maastricht European Fine Art Fair)上展示。但是由于卖家们鼓励苏富比和佳士得报出更高的估价来争夺自己的拍品,所以拍卖行只针对少数富豪进行宣传,现场竞价十分冷清。
A Sicilian Photographer of the Mafia and Her ‘Archive of Blood’
Some of these people have instead reached for issues that feel close to their concerns: trade, crime, the war on drugs, controlling the borders, fear of Islamist terrorism. All are significant in their own right, and create very real fears for many people, but they have also become a means to have a public conversation about what society’s changes mean for white majorities.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

上半年北京一套房租金价格平均涨300元

单词pandemic 联想记忆:
事实上,无论是詹妮弗加纳还是詹纽瑞琼斯、肯达尔詹娜,大家都拍下了她们所挑选出的最能唬人的南瓜,兴奋地送走十月,迎接十一月万圣节的到来。
“Even though I’m an engineer and an analytical person at heart, the most important decisions I’ve ever made had nothing to do with any of that,” he told an interviewer at Duke University, where he studied for an MBA, last year. “They were always based on intuition.”

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

许多人对此不屑一顾,《纽约每日新闻》采访到的一位营养师声称,黄金披萨中最昂贵的成分:厄瓜多尔进口黄金薄片缺乏营养价值。
US schools are rebuilding their strength in this ranking, with their number increasing to 51. This had dropped below 50 for the first time in 2016, down to 47. Six of the eight new or returning schools are from the US.
S%(Q1(LYA(ep)n

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • vt. 鼓励,促进,支持
  • 你涨工资了吗?13地发布2018年企业工资指导线
  • James is proof of a trend we've seen, from Tim Duncan to Manu Ginobili to Vince Carter. Conditioning, health science and nutrition are paving the way for athletes to remain in their prime, and then serviceable, for way longer than before. James is realistically still going to be the best player on his team when he's 36, and that's straight up bonkers.
  • 报告显示:中国房地产“去库存”初步显效
  • 2015上半年LED掀起一股并购整合的风潮
  • 在攻读EMBA课程之初,男女学员的简单情况基本类似。
    线索可能隐藏在价格之中:H股很便宜。H股指数市盈率为7倍,低于西班牙(该国失业率达到22%)、巴西(该国依赖大宗商品,因而也依赖中国)以及受中东乱局影响的土耳其和埃及。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 小区业主卖房时联合涨价是否违法, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

Show MoreHide

The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

市场竞争激烈 门窗企业如何逆境求生

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

步入发展快车道 长三角一体化有何新期待?

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

Show MoreHide

How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • On Monday the research team said the skeleton confirmed that the monarch had severe scoliosis, or twisting of the spine. It may have been painful and caused his right shoulder to appear higher than his left, but there was no evidence of the withered arm depicted in Shakespeare's "Richard III".
    7.狱警
  • 从单个大宗商品来看,预计咖啡价格将大幅下跌,目前为1磅1.62美元左右,投资者对阿拉比卡咖啡前景尤为悲观。
    It’s wall-to-wall pure pop heaven, crackling with originality and dark humor, teeming with action sequences so perfectly timed and executed you almost want to run out of the theater on the spot so you can call a friend and rave about it — but you wouldn’t dare leave your seat because you wouldn’t want to miss a frame of this brilliant, pulse-quickening gem.
    4.厨师
    这两部极具娱乐性,追求整体效果,建立在事实基础上的程序剧(procedural)都是关于惊人的犯罪与腐败滋生的大型机构的故事——一个是关于罗马天主教会,一个是关于华尔街银行。除了激发起正直的愤怒,麦卡锡与麦凯以不同的方式,把悬疑、情感和道德的分量融入到接电话、敲键盘、读报表等现代日常工作中去。
    This is the moment hundreds of lovestruck Irish football fans gathered around a blonde French girl and serenaded her - and one admirer even stole a kiss from the woman at the end.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 北京换手率最高的二手房小区“长”什么样?
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 月度成交面积环比下降 30个典型城市楼市现降温

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

Show MoreHide

Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

我更愿意和别人保持距离
"There are 1,400 individuals who are involved in the departures for jihad,for terrorism, in Syria and in Iraq," Valls told BFMTV.
In the US, he adds, ETFs emerged into a market where there were lots of registered investment advisers incentivised to use lower-cost products for their clients.
The programme has enabled me to take a quantum leap in my career and prepared me to take on a strategic C-level [chief-level] role right after graduation, said another alumnus.
祝贺佳节。
As fall arrived and school began, D'Aloisio felt immense pressure to deliver for his backers. He needed to whip his algorithm into better shape, so he contracted a team of Israeli coders who specialize in natural language processing. Searching on Google, he found and hired a retired professor living in Thailand who'd written seminal books on the topic. 'He became our main scientist,' says D'Aloisio. 'He now works at Yahoo! in the Sunnyvale office.'
我倒是并不担心费城、凤凰城和明尼苏达的球队。他们队伍都很年轻,都在重建的路上。如果他们能够取得进步,那很好,就算没有,他们也能获得高顺位的选秀权。而篮网队则是另一个故事了,我们稍后会讨论到他们。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

Show MoreHide

Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

Show MoreHide

Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 根据质检总局提供的数据显示,相比于通过网购平台进口的商品,通过其他渠道进口消费品的质量要高一些,不合格率仅为29%。
  • 京雄高速、新机场高速、安立路改造……这些重点项目今年开工
  • fare
    WORST USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA
  • 浅析我国当下家居建材市场的发展现状
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • “We need to do what the mayor wants everybody to do, and that is build more housing,” said Steven Spinola, the president of the Real Estate Board of New York. However, “if the numbers don’t work, if the rent that is coming in is less than the cost of maintaining the building, then you are not going to do it.”
    Star Wars: Rogue One is set to release on December 16, 2016.
  • Kristen Stewart definitely did some 'butt' kicking at the Nickelodeon Kids' Choice Awards 2013 on Saturday. The star strutted down the purple carpet in a dazzlingly deep blue and black top and tiny shorts that had a miniscule checkerboard pattern. Kristen was nominated for two awards at the live show - Favorite Movie Actress for The Twilight Saga: Breaking Dawn - Part 2 and Favorite Female Buttkicker for Snow White and the Huntsman.
    2.富国银行
  • Current prosthetic hands do little beyond filling the arm-shaped space between your body and the air. Sure, they can grasp things all right, and they help in balance, but they lack one of the human hand's most important abilities—the sense of touch. People with prosthetics can't detect if they're in contact with an object without looking at it directly.
    安德森想让男人们脸上的毛发丰富多样,每个演员脸上装饰的胡子都不太一样。它是名符其实的时髦派风格,从一字胡、八字胡,再到杰夫·戈德布拉姆(Jeff Goldblum)的黑灰色山羊胡。
  • 007系列电影主题曲第七名:卡莉·西蒙--《没人做得更好》
    The global survey was conducted between 2010 and 2012 and follows the Earth Institute's first rankings released last year. While "the world has become a slightly happier and more generous place over the past five years," economic and political upheavals have resulted in greatly reduced levels of well being for some nations, the report said.
    Vo said with each plane flying 12 to 16 segments a day, one late flight can easily cascade into several delays in a single day. To offset that, the airline’s systems operation and control center makes adjustments when needed. That can involve inserting spare planes and extra crews into the schedule to make sure flights stay on time.
  • The film screens in China reached 41,179 as of the end of 2016 with another 1,612 cinemas and 9,552 film screens built during the year, according to a report by People's Daily.
    The auction house says seven records in all were set at the Geneva auction including the highest amount ever paid for a yellow diamond - $16.3 million for the 100.09-carat Graff Vivid Yellow diamond ring.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 风电光伏数百亿财政补贴拖欠 危及企业资金链 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

统计局:8月一二三线城市商品住宅销售价格稳中有涨

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

“以房养老”为何遇冷?热推半年仅32户39人签约

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

住建部:2019年将强化舆论引导和预期管理 确保市场稳定

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

天花板装修误区重重 消费者选购与安装攻略

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • But Schultz didn't stop there. The chief executive also offered free coffee for a few days during the shutdown to customers who bought someone else their drink. Schultz hoped the campaign would help people "connect with one another, even as we wait for our elected officials to do the same for our country."
  • 苹果公司首席执行官蒂姆库克
  • 多地园区迎“水十条”年底大考

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • Justin Bieb er just made tens of thousands of more dollars -- from his hair. The 'Baby' singer's locks sold on eBay yesterday with a final bid of $40,688.
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 2011年,在《老友记》最后一季播出7年之后,美国卫星电视频道Comedy Central再次播放该剧,观看人数超过了3600万,而观众的年龄主要分布在16岁至34岁之间。假期时,看剧人数更是由于播放集数增加而飙升。
    adj. 投影的,投射 v. 投射(project的过去
    It was in Giambattista Valli’s most recent autumn-winter show, full of puffed-sleeve printed tunics over matching trousers and drop-waisted schoolgirls shifts, and in MaxMara’s ode to Marilyn Monroe’s 1962 photo shoot with George Barris.
  • 《量子破碎》

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 是的,你想知道怎么去做好你的工作。但是仍然有一些你想要学的东西;否则,你就没有职业发展。如果你在工作中不能学到新的东西,那么已经是时候去找一个能够学到新知识并且有职业发展的工作了。
  • 地价涨幅26个月来首次低于房价涨幅 土地购置现分化
  • 亲朋好友称Ross是一个充满活力有梦想的女孩子,她走到哪里,都会被她点亮。她去世后几天,她的母亲Alicia Jesquith告诉记者,女儿突然离世,她需要一个答案。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 外媒称中国楼市交易量下降 拐点或几个月后出现
  • Household substance abuse
  • 2015年电源开关产品质量监督抽查结果公布
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

红星美凯龙高速扩张的背后 问题不断存隐忧

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 房地产从业者急切抄底楼市 齐呼当前房价到底了
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 住进“甲醛房” 老租客心里慌
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

Key projected targets for development this year:

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

3.The End of the One-Child Policy
自高中以后,科比就没怎么变过,即便他已经离开劳尔梅里恩高中16年了。
明星大撞衫 看谁更好看(二)
节目13 歌曲《嫦娥》,李玉刚 景海鹏 刘旺 刘洋
在1991年至2010年之间,癌症死亡率显著下降了20%,这比过去十年下降总和的10%还要多。总有一天,我们会跟癌症说再见。
Oh Carmelo, I wish you still had your high school mini-fro. It was absolutely epic.
荷兰合作银行是面向全球农户和农业企业的领先融资机构。
《三块广告牌》是一部黑色喜剧电影,由奥斯卡得主马丁?麦克唐纳执导。
While British schools moved up two places on average, French schools, the largest group from any one country, fell one place on average. EMLyon Business School dropped outside the MBA ranking and lost 15 places overall, while Edhec Business School failed to make it into the Executive MBA ranking and lost eight places overall as a result.
戴维皮林(David Pilling)

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

物业费改革的北京样本:定价由市场决定

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • He said his talks with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry earlier this week indicated that the U.S. is ready to move toward "settling issues that can only be settled through joint efforts."
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 两年前,美国电影学院特地延迟了年终投票的时间,就为了电影星球大战:原力觉醒能够参选,后来该电影进入了2015榜单前十。然而今年最新的《星际大战:最后的绝地武士》,将于12月15日上映,无缘上榜。
  • 智能卫浴已成家装行业的主流
  • 伊朗持不同政见电影人扮演一个几乎不合格的德黑兰出租车司机,带来一部狡猾的伪纪录片,深入探讨电影的悖论,以及专制统治下日常生活中的矛盾。
  • 2017年卫浴洁具行业四大新态势
  • 有5个项目首次登上“无工作经验要求”项目排行榜。其中,排名最高的是新加坡管理大学(Singapore Management University)李光前商学院(Lee Kong Chian School of Business)。该学院在毕业生国际流动性方面排名第二,而且是首所同时登上“无工作经验要求”和“有工作经验要求”排行榜的学院。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 三度降息令市场信心爆棚 楼市进入温和上涨通道
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • In an emailed statement, FIFA said that during group stage matches, it sold a total of 143,364 of the cheapest tickets, which amounted to roughly 3,000 such tickets available per match.
  • Despite our global economy, only 20 percent of Americans speak another language. Sixty Vocab is aiming to change that with it’s online foreign language game. Based on the premise that 2000 words equals 60 percent of a foreign language, Sixty Vocab is aiming to make learning essential vocabulary fun. The games teach the words most commonly used in conversation and applies time-based discipline — the faster you guess the word, the more rapidly you move on to the next one. Bridging the gap between your high school classes and a pricey foreign language program, Sixty Vocab is offering a unique option for those who want to learn a foreign language during their morning coffee or commute.

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

房地产全面调整时代 住房将进入“买方市场”

View All Footnotes