Researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest
(Phys.org)—Native American hunter-gatherers living more than a thousand years ago in what is now northwestern California ate salmon, acorns and other foods, and now we know they also smoked tobacco—the earliest known usage in the Pacific Northwest, according to a new University of California, Davis, study.
"The study demonstrates that tobacco smoking was part of the northwestern California culture very early ... shortly after the earliest documented Pacific Northwest Coast plank house villages," said the study, published in the 水性涂料要被危险废物名录“除名”？.
Testing organic residues extracted from pipes, researchers from the UC Davis Department of Anthropology and the Fiehn Metabolomics Laboratory of the UC Davis Genome Center confirmed tobacco was smoked, and likely grown in the region, by at least A.D. 860.
Perhaps more importantly, the researchers say that additional studies may help them better understand the origins of nicotine addiction and the human management, geographic range extension and cultivation of tobacco. Indeed, as part of a second study, the authors have recently detected nicotine in ancient pipes from an 800-year-old site in the modern city of Pleasanton, Calif.
Farewell to Cassini
Prior to this recent testing, which used sensitive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, researchers were unsure of the historical use of tobacco on the Pacific Northwest Coast. It was unclear, for example, whether European traders had brought tobacco to the area much later, or if some other plant had been smoked in the pipes, Tushingham said.
"The essential question of the Sino-Japanese relationship is if Japan can accept the fact that China is growing stronger and more powerful." CUI TIANKAI, member of the CPPCC National Committee and vice-minister of foreign affairs
节目37 相声《东西南北大拜年》，赵炎 逗笑 逗乐 大新等
Still, the optimistic view is that several roadblocks to recovery -- an over-indebted consumer, a moribund housing market and shellshocked banks -- are no longer holding back hiring. Barring an unforeseen shock to the economy, this could mean 2013 will be another year of slow but steady growth.[qh]
伦敦博蒙特·内森顾问公司(Beaumont Nathan)的联合创始人雨果·内森(Hugo Nathan)说：“新投资者对早期绘画大师的作品有兴趣，不过他们想要的是杜维恩(Duveen)卖给强盗大亨们的作品。他们想要名作。”他指的是英国艺术交易商约瑟夫·杜维恩(Joseph Duveen)，他把很多伟大的艺术品带去了美国。
While there is a still a way to go to ensure the LGBT community has the same rights as sexual couples, the world has moved on significantly in recent years. In fact, gay marriage is now legal for 60% of Americans. What about the other 40%, you ask? The List Love really believes the rest of the United States, and many other countries across the world – we’re talking to you, Russia! -will catch up soon.
9. How to reset iPod
"Students are not suited for starting businesses on their own," said Zhang, adding that vocational students are more eager to start businesses than university undergraduates.
因此，有如此强大的南美洲队伍坐镇，主要的挑战力量将来自何方呢？嗯，来自欧洲的强势力量恐怕便是最显而易见的答案了，你还能去哪里寻找一个比西班牙更有冠军相的球队呢？作为一支卫冕冠军，并坐拥两届欧锦赛的冠军头号，这是一支不仅知道如何出色发挥，同时知晓如何赢得比赛的队伍。因此，虽然梅西和罗纳尔多曾获得所有年度最佳球员的头衔，但是哈维（Xavi）和伊涅斯塔(Iniesta)却将所有主要冠军据为己有。那么，他们在2014年将延续冠军生涯么？对于这个困扰世界上其他国家的问题，答案是肯定的。不仅大多数老将依然坚守岗位，许多包括科克（Koke ）和蒂亚戈·阿尔坎塔拉(Thiago Alcantara)等有才华的年轻球员也加入了。不仅仅如此，他们还从东道主的眼皮下挖走了一个才华横溢的射手蒂亚戈·科斯塔（Diego Costa）收入囊中，因为这位马德里竞技（Atletico Madrid）的前锋选择为西班牙效力，而非自己出生国家踢球。
CEOs: Newbies Mary Barra at GM and Mark Fields at Ford start playing close attention to the moves made by FCA’s Sergio Marchionne. Despite running his growing empire on two continents, Marchionne tacked on a U.S market share gain of 1.2 points, unhindered by one of the weakest product lineups in the business and troubles with his much heralded eight-speed transmission.
But the temperature of 1998 is now being surpassed every four or five years, and 2014 was the first time that happened without a significant El Ni?o. Gavin A. Schmidt, head of NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies in Manhattan, said the next strong El Ni?o would probably rout all temperature records.
There's a crucial element in team building called planning that often seems to elude those franchises that are stuck in the mud.
In addition, the 1980 stamps were designed by Huang Yongyu, 92, a well-known Chinese master painter, making it a collectible item with extreme value.
The study is available online.